kanu: To plant, bury; planting, burial. Fig., hereditary. Mea kanu, crops, plants. Kanu papahu wili, to set solidly into the ground by twisting in and then tamping with a post; lit., plant stick twist. He moʻopuna na kō lākou haku kanu, he was a grandson of their hereditary lord.
hoʻokanu. To cause to plant or bury, (Proto-Polynesian tanu).
Did you know that Hawaiian language was once considered a good example for a universal and global language? The alphabet is short and pronunciation is phonetic. Well, it may be true that phonetic spelling is simple to speak at face value, but Hawaiian language is far from that simple.
Hawaiian language has layers of depth, metaphoric expression, dualism, and symbolism that intertwine with scientifically-based manaʻo for living. This knowledge takes a lifetime to maopopo (recognize and understand). I think that generational transference is the best way for this kind of knowledge to be absorbed in language development. As with any language, idiosyncratic phrases are expressed colloquially and embedded in the language as cultural nuances. At any rate, immersion in cultural understandings is a must. For me, ongoing immersion implies a contextual base in which the language is used. For instance, making kapa is ideally suited for language development, and practical use. Some other activities with specific vocabulary can be found linked with culturally consistent practices such as fishing, farming, weaving, woodworking, and canoe paddling… these provide contexts for developing language and cultural understanding. Language and craft, and a healthy understanding of values are foundations of cultural growth and perpetuation…
Traditional stories, chants, riddles, and proverbs are relevant today for contemplation of Hawaiian manaʻo and can be used to build up our culture. This kind of culture-based education is already being done here and there. To this I say, E mahalo nō! E ola mau i ka Lāhui o Hawaiʻi! Thank you and long live the Hawaiian Nation!
manaʻoʻiʻo: Faith, confidence; to have faith, confidence; to believe. Kumu manaʻoʻiʻo, creed. Pelika o ka manaʻoʻiʻo, covenant of faith. Ua manaʻoʻiʻo i ke Akua, [he] believes in God.
ʻoluʻolu: Pleasant, nice, amiable, satisfied, contented, happy, affable, agreeable, congenial, cordial, gracious; please. E ʻoluʻolu ʻoe e hele mai, please come here; lit., be kind to come here. E ʻoluʻolu ʻoe i koʻu manaʻo, please do me a favor. ʻOluʻolu ʻole, unpleasant, impolite, uncomfortable. ʻaʻole o lākou ʻoluʻolu i ʻelua dālā, they are not satisfied with two dollars. Mōʻi ʻoluʻolu, gracious majesty. ʻOluʻolu nō iāia iho, satisfied with himself, complacent. ʻAʻahu ʻoluʻolu, comfortable, casual, informal wear. Ke noi aku nei au i kou ʻoluʻolu, I am asking a favor of you. E ʻoluʻolu i ka mea i loaʻa, be satisfied with what you have got.
hoʻoluʻolu: To satisfy, alleviate, allay, console; to retire to rest, to seek rest; parade rest, at ease (military commands). E hōʻoluʻolu mai i kō ʻoukou mau naʻau, comfort your hearts.
pōpoki: Cat (said by some to be derived from English “poor pussy”). Pōpoki kī, a spitting cat [spiteful, malignant person]. Pōpoki lehu, Maltese cat; lit., ash cat. Pōpoki nāwaliwali, weak cat [a weakling]. Pōpoki peʻelua, gray cat with darker markings, as a tabby cat; lit., caterpillar cat.
heiau: Pre-Christian place of worship, shrine; some heiau were elaborately constructed stone platforms, others simple earth terraces. Many are preserved today. Several types are listed below. On the island of Kauaʻi where I live, there are 17 heiau located in the Na Pali district, 22 in the district of Haleleʻa, 20 in the Koʻolau district, 13 in the Puna district, and 81 in Kona district. Dedication of these heiau were to the four major gods; KU, KANE, KANALOA, and LONO, who represented Akua in natual phenomena. ʻAumakua were also honored by prayer and offerings.
Hale heiau, house of worship.
heiau hoʻōla: Heiau for treating sick.
heiau hoʻouluʻai: Heiau where first fruits were offered to insure further growth. Lit., heiau for the increase of food crops.
heiau hoʻoulu ua: Heiau where offerings were made to insure rain.
heiau hoʻoulu iʻa: Heiau where fish were offered to insure good fishing.
heiau kālua ua: Heiau for stopping rain, or (less frequently) for bringing rain. One such heiau named Imu-Kālua-ua (rain-baking oven) was in the Kaunakakai quadrangle, Molokaʻi; a land section in Puna, Hawaiʻi, also has this name. Rain in leaf packages is said to have been baked in an oven.
heiau maʻo: Small temporary heiau covered with tapa stained green (maʻo). Used for the hoʻouluʻai ceremony to bring food.
heiau poʻo kanaka: Heiau where human sacrifice was offered.
heiau waikaua: Heiau used for services to bring success in war.
luakini: Temple, church, cathedral, tabernacle; large heiau where ruling chiefs prayed and human sacrifices were offered; to perform temple work.
Luakini-type heiau were the largest and most complex and were sacrificial to KU. The KANE heiau were the simplest and were accessible to commoners. LONO heiau were dedicated to agriculture, and KANALOA heiau were associated with fishing. KU and LONO required complex worship and offerings.
Puʻu honua were places of refuge and restoration of pono when kapu was broken. The puʻu honua were consistent with Hawaiian protocol and would not be adjacent to heiau where human sacrifice was conducted. For example, at the puʻu honua at Wailua, Kauaʻi were for royal birth and burial. At such a place of mana and esteem, respite and peace was sought and mau haʻa lelea or repentance was made.
hānai: 1. Foster child, adopted child; foster, adopted. Keiki hānai, foster child. Lawe hānai, to adopt a child. Makua hānai, foster parent. Kāna hānai, his adopted child. 2. To raise, rear, feed, nourish, sustain; provider, caretaker (said affectionately of chiefs by members of the court). Hānai holoholona, to feed and care for domestic animals. Makamaka hānai, generous and hospitable friend. Hānai ā momona, to fatten. Hānai maila ʻoia iāia meli, he fed him the honey. 3. Body of a kōkō net carrier, and cords attached to it; fish net or trap, as for ʻoʻopu fish; kite.
akua hānai: 1. Spirits, as of a recently dead kinsman, who were fed (hānai) offerings (such as food) and sent out to destroy an enemy. 2. The kauila, nioi, and the ʻohe “poison” woods of Molokaʻi, which were kept by sorcerers in their houses, wrapped in tapa, and to which food offerings were made daily; scraps of these woods were used as poison, and poison itself was sometimes called akua hānai.
hānaiāhuhu: To make a pet of an animal; to care for well, as a pet; cherished plans, pet projects. Eia kekahi mau hānaiāhuhu a ke aupuni, here are some favorite plans of the government.
hanaina: Feeding. Eia mai ka moa i hanaina lā, here is the rooster fed in the sun; the cock fed in the sun was believed strong because of turning his head to avoid heat.