heiau: Pre-Christian place of worship, shrine; some heiau were elaborately constructed stone platforms, others simple earth terraces. Many are preserved today. Several types are listed below. On the island of Kauaʻi where I live, there are 17 heiau located in the Na Pali district, 22 in the district of Haleleʻa, 20 in the Koʻolau district, 13 in the Puna district, and 81 in Kona district. Dedication of these heiau were to the four major gods; KU, KANE, KANALOA, and LONO, who represented Akua in natual phenomena. ʻAumakua were also honored by prayer and offerings.
Hale heiau, house of worship.
heiau hoʻōla: Heiau for treating sick.
heiau hoʻouluʻai: Heiau where first fruits were offered to insure further growth. Lit., heiau for the increase of food crops.
heiau hoʻoulu ua: Heiau where offerings were made to insure rain.
heiau hoʻoulu iʻa: Heiau where fish were offered to insure good fishing.
heiau kālua ua: Heiau for stopping rain, or (less frequently) for bringing rain. One such heiau named Imu-Kālua-ua (rain-baking oven) was in the Kaunakakai quadrangle, Molokaʻi; a land section in Puna, Hawaiʻi, also has this name. Rain in leaf packages is said to have been baked in an oven.
heiau maʻo: Small temporary heiau covered with tapa stained green (maʻo). Used for the hoʻouluʻai ceremony to bring food.
heiau poʻo kanaka: Heiau where human sacrifice was offered.
heiau waikaua: Heiau used for services to bring success in war.
luakini: Temple, church, cathedral, tabernacle; large heiau where ruling chiefs prayed and human sacrifices were offered; to perform temple work.
Luakini-type heiau were the largest and most complex and were sacrificial to KU. The KANE heiau were the simplest and were accessible to commoners. LONO heiau were dedicated to agriculture, and KANALOA heiau were associated with fishing. KU and LONO required complex worship and offerings.
Puʻu honua were places of refuge and restoration of pono when kapu was broken. The puʻu honua were consistent with Hawaiian protocol and would not be adjacent to heiau where human sacrifice was conducted. For example, at the puʻu honua at Wailua, Kauaʻi were for royal birth and burial. At such a place of mana and esteem, respite and peace was sought and mau haʻa lelea or repentance was made.
I have been away from home, my computer, and this blog for the past 2 months. Been traveling around a bit. Headed first to O’ahu where I attended the 12th Annual Hawai’i International Conference on Social Sciences. That was an intellectual teaser of sorts. It opened my eyes to what educators are currently studying as research topics. I presented my research about kapa and some applications that can be made to mainstream education. Education reforms are desperately needed and a complete overhaul to public school education seems in order. I propose embracing cultural domains where diverse worldviews are explored as paradigms. I was excited to share my research and it was well received. My presentation was short and to the point. At that time, I had not written out my full findings or outcomes. I will share some of these outcomes here in due time.
Next, I ventured to Florida where I studied at the University of Florida in Gainesville. I went there to complete the tail end of my graduate program and my Masters of Arts degree in Art Education (received August 13… whoopee! I did it in two and a half years). I attended two studio art courses this summer: Printmaking with Bob Meuller, and Sketchbook with Patrick Grigsby. The most important take-away? Make studio practice a priority!! An artist has to do as a singer has to sing as a dancer has to dance… I am looking forward to getting deeper into making more art, including more kapa! ~aloha~